# More Thermodynamics and multicomponent systems

## Presentation

Programme (detailed contents):

Notion of thermodynamic system. Exchange of work and heat. First law (principle of energy conservation) and notion of internal energy. Energy balance open systems in steady-state conditions and interest of the enthalpy function. Second law (principle of evolution of the systems), entropy function and derived functions (Gibbs energy and Helmholtz energy functions). Phase equilibrium of a pure component. Behaviour of real fluids. Thermodynamic diagrams. Thermal machines. Description of the physico-chemical systems. Notions of partial molar properties. Enthalpy and internal energy of reaction: fundamentals of thermochemistry. Phase equilibria for mutli-component systems: notion and use of chemical potential, fugactity, activity and excess functions. Chemical equilibria.

Organisation:

Lectures where the fundamental notions are highlighted, followed by tutorial exercises which illustrate and apply the presented concepts. To facilitate the implication of the students, the majority of the teaching is realized in the form of tutorials. A frame constituted of problems with elements of answer is given to the students in order to guide their personal work.

Documents:

Duplicated lecture notes and tutorial exercises, including the personal works. Two books written by the teaching staff are available from the library of the establishment.

Main difficulties for students:

Essentially linked to the specificity of the discipline, which can be described as an inductive and deductive science. It requires time and a regular work in order to be likened.

## Objectives

At the end of this module, the student will have become familiar with material, energy
and entropy balances for homogeneous closed systems
or open systems in steady-state conditions. He will know how to choose and define
the system associated with the problem studied, as well as the relevant variables .
He will master the behaviour of real fluids and the main thermodynamic diagrams,
and he will understand the operation of thermal machines.
He will have acquired the foundations allowing the calculation of phase equilibria
for multi-component systems occurring during unit operations (distillation,
absorption) and in the calculation of reactors (chemical and biological).
He will master the methods of calculation of chemical equilibria.

## Needed prerequisite

Unit « Thermodynamics - fundamentals and applications » of the INSA first year curriculum or equivalent.

## Form of assessment

The evaluation of outcome prior learning is made as a continuous training during the semester. According ot the teaching, the assessment will be different: as a written exam, an oral exam, a record, a written report, peers review...

## Additional information

Unit « Thermodynamics – fundamentals and applications » (# I1ANTH11) of the INSA first year curriculum or equivalent.

Macroscopic thermodynamics, energy balance, entropy balance, steady-state flow, real fluids, equilibrium between phases, chemical potential, Gibbs-Duhem relation, fugacity, Henry’s law, real solutions, activity, thermochemistry, chemical equilibrium