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Graphene and beyond


This project begins with a bibliographic work dedicated to novel two-dimensional materials, following a general presentation with guidelines. Depending on their bibliographic researches, the students will elaborate an experimental project centered on a particular 2D material. A second meeting with the teacher will be used to validate or modify the project, taking into account the experimental facilities.


The experimental fabrication of the device includes three steps:


- Micro-mechanical exfoliation of a 3D material and local deposition of its 2D counterpart on a dedicated substrate. Observation and characterization using optical microscopy.


- Electrical addressing using electron-beam lithography and lift-off (fabrication of micro-electrodes)


 - Sample mounting on a special sample-holder using wedge bonding.


The students will characterize their devices using optical and atomic force microscopy, before measuring their electronic properties at low temperature and under magnetic field.




The projects are realized by groups of 2 or 3 students. During the laboratory sessions, the students are closely guided by a teacher.


At the end of this module, the student understands and is able to explain (main concepts):


- the main properties of novel bi-dimensional materials such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides.


- the fabrication techniques derived from micromechanical cleavage from a mother material and the manipulation of these objects at the micrometer scale.


- the concepts and experimental methods aiming at the electrical addressing of these objects using e-beam lithography


- the electronic properties of these materials, as well as their potential for future applications.


The student will be able to:


- produce an experimental device involving a bi-dimensional material.


- measure the electronic properties of the fabricated device


- discuss the experimental results and propose further improvements when applicable.

Needed prerequisite

Master 1 in Physics, Applied Physics, Chemistry or Material Science or equivalent

Form of assessment

The evaluation of outcome prior learning is made as a continuous training during the semester. According ot the teaching, the assessment will be different: as a written exam, an oral exam, a record, a written report, peers review...